International Migrations as a Threat to the Internal Security and Democracy03 marzo 2018 -
Contributo selezionato da Filodiritto tra quelli pubblicati nei Proceedings “4th ACADEMOS Conference 2017”
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Contribution selected by Filodiritto among those published in the Proceedings “4th ACADEMOS Conference 2017”
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 Pomeranian University in Słupsk, Emigration Museum in Gdynia (POLAND)
The article presents in a synthetic form selected issues on the impact of migration on the internal security of the state. It indicates that in the contemporary world terrorism, political extremism and other crises that may lead to the rupture or weakening of social ties, as well as endanger political stability and democratic regime, pose significant threats to the internal security of state bodies. It is emphasized that the security of the state is substantially undermined by populist and far-right parties that are trying to build their political capital to a large extent on anti-immigrant slogans.
In recent years, migrations gained a reputation of one of the most important issues of the so-called new security agenda [1, pp. 61]. They are currently considered as one of the most significant challenges to national security. This is attributed largely to the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 in the United States and then terrorist attacks in March 2004 in Madrid and in July 2005 in London.
These attacks demonstrated the scale and the potential of threats associated with the movement of people and heavily influenced the nature of the public and political debate on migration issues. It is worth noting in this regard, however, that one of the pioneers of research on the correlation between migration and security, Myron Weiner, as early as at the beginning of the 1990s noticed that “Migration and refugee issues, no longer the sole concern of ministries of labor of or immigration, are now matters of high international politics, engaging the attention of heads of states, cabinets, and key ministries involved in defense, internal security and external relations”. [2, pp. 91] Therefore, over the last several years the so-called migration-security nexus has been recognized as an important research issue.
Characterization of the impact of migration on security for many reasons is an extraordinarily difficult task. It was noted among others by Nazli Choucri who observed that, firstly, both the concepts of migration and security, as well as correlations between them are largely subjective in nature [3, pp. 97]. Both concepts are ambiguous and multifaceted and, therefore, difficult to define in an unambiguous and precise way. Secondly, correlations between migration and security are also complex in nature. Hence, considering the interrelationship between these two categories we can discuss the impact of migration on the security of individuals (migrants), local communities, societies, states and organizations (the European Union), as well as the impact of migration on international security. Analyzing the influence of migration on security of the state various dimensions of the security can be considered: internal, external, economic, political, cultural, social or demographic to name just a few.
Taking into account the complexity of the correlations between migration and security, this article seeks only to outline the major, selected threats arising from international migration (understood as a movement of people from one country to another) for the internal security of the state, which is defined as “functioning of the state which ensures prevention, elimination or reduction of threats to the constitutional system, internal order and peace, and enables protection of the public interests of particular communities and every citizen”. In the contemporary world terrorism, political extremism and other crises that may lead to the rupture or weakening of social ties, as well as endanger political stability pose significant threats to the internal security of the state [4, pp. 14].
The article has been based on the analysis of literature on the subject and specialized reports.
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