The Implications of the Hunting Tourism’s Development on Rural Area’s Sustainable Development

Hunting Tourism
Hunting Tourism


Hunting tourism as a subcategory of tourism in nature, which at his turn is a subcategory of cultural and ecological tourism and which has a subcategory, trophy hunting, knows in areas with hunting vocation a great development, due to the tourist flows that focus through areas with high hunting potential. In order to reduce the impact on the natural environment and the habitats, it is necessary to develop managerial strategies through to reduce the number of hunter tourists in areas of hunting scientific interest and the orientation of the tourist flows towards milder forms with nature, such as hunting ecotourism. The values of hunting fauna and, implicitly, the economic, social and ecological impact of hunting tourism, are represented by the fauna with hunting interest, mainly regarded as a hunting resource. Hunting tourism, properly managed, can contribute to the sustainable development of an area if are implemented measures of integration of it into local development planning and strategy, preserving the natural diversity of areas and habitats and uses sustainable the hunting resources, that can substantially support sustainable development of local economies.


Table of contents

1. Introduction

2. Methodology

3. Results and discussions

4. Conclusions

1. Introduction

Hunting tourism has developed along with visiting some places and the desire of persons with high income to get hunting trophies, from species different from their residence area. Due to the large number of hunters around the world, the hunting tourism offer is great in only a few places from the world, and it can speak of a trophy hunting industry [1, 2, 3].

For the sustainable development of areas with high biodiversity value for hunting species, organizations that militate for animal protection are proposing the practicing of sustainable hunting tourism, as a measure of species conservation which requires that bird trophies and panples, to be replaced with photographs, and the species to be admired in their natural habitat, measure which contributes to the increase of the habitats’ worthiness of the areas where the species are endangered [4, 5, 6].

Although is militating for conservation of animal and bird species, it is noted that hunting tourism accounts 8% from all tourism activities, being an important source of income for communities in which funds and reservations with hunting vocation are located [7, 8, 9, 10].

Due to its development, hunting tourism contributes to the development of upstream and downstream industries, requiring for its practice equipment and weapons of the highest performances, but also a true hospitality industry, accommodation, food, unities, special transport and leisure.

For practicing hunting tourism is required a particular attitude, towards the specific hunting equipment, which must be procured, verified, maintained and adapted to the legal requirements specific to the place where hunting activity is developed, reservation, natural park, hunting found [11, 12, 13].

Hunting tourism [14, 15, 16], a true hunting industry for trophies, in countries with underdeveloped economy involves the development near the places with hunting vocation of:

transport services from airport to destination and return;

hunting farms that have specialized guides for hunting tourism support;

specific tourist services, overnight stays, meals;

leisure and recreation services;

telephone services, payments;

medical services;

services for processing and preserving trophies;

tourist safety services.

At worldwide level there are 6 types of hunting tourism, equivalent to so many forms of hunting:

hunting tourism for the hunting of small fur animals, carried out by the indigenous population for subsistence;

hunting tourism for poultry hunting carried out by the indigenous population for subsistence;

hunting tourism with commercial purpose carried out by hunters of ungulates and kangaroos;

hunting tourism with recreational fun character that includes the following forms of hunting:

based on physical and mental abilities;

of group at small hunt;

of passage birds;

of trophies;

to guard;


hunting tourism for optimal staff evaluation;

hunting tourism for integrated hunting, a combination between trophy huntin(commercial) and control hunting (selection).


2. Methodology

For the purpose of the sustainable development of some areas with hunting tourism vocation, in the present scientific approach we have proposed several measures which to contribute to the development and promotion of sustainable hunting tourism, because the classic hunting tourism for trophies exerts on the natural environment from the protected areas two categories of positive and negative effects.


3. Results and discussions

Hunting tourism, which involves recreational hunting, sports hunting, tourist hunting, can be considered as a form of tourism in nature, which falls within cultural tourism (hunting for subsistence of indigenous peoples, with ark, spear or crossbow) and ecological tourism (of observation, shooting in their natural habitat of mammals and wild birds).

In organic tourism is also included hunting tourism for trophies, a true hunting industry, bringing profit for rural communities that have funds with vocal hunting.

Considered activity with recreational, sporting and entertaining character, hunting tourism, as a modern form of tourism, requires, from an economic and social point of view, the performance of two subcategories of hunting:

- residential hunting, carried out in the country of origin, usually in the area of home;

- non-residential hunting, specific to hunting tourists, which has as main goals:

o observation, shooting, of hunting species in their natural habitat;

o tracking large migrations of ungulate specimens for searching of some new areafor grazing;

o tracking the migration of birds from cold and temperate areas in areas propitious for wintering;

o familiarity with the species to be hunted for trophy, rotation at the mountain cock;

o adventure, hunting of lion, bear;

o purchasing souvenirs, fur;

o strengthening self-reliance in extreme situations.

Hunting tourism as activity, recreational, sports and hunting can be considered as a tourist activity comprising 3 types of activities with hunting character:

- self-reliance, adventure (big hunting);

- outdoor activities, regarding the experience as hunter, founding hunting, removal of the fox from burrow (small hunt with feather and hair, raptors);

- activities involving skill, local rituals, pulling with arc, crossbow, hunting of hawk.

In order to reduce the impact of hunting tourism on the environment and habitats of hunting interest, it is necessary to develop measures, in order to reduce the number of hunters and to encourage ecotourism hunters by improving the management of: hunting tourism offer:

the hunting tourism demand;

 the capacity of the hunting resources to deal with the demand for trophies;

 the impact of using the resources on the habitats of the number and quality of hunting species.

Hunting tourism practiced correctly by specialists in the field can contribute to sustainable development if:

consult the specialists, in order to avoid the conflicts of interest between local communities and the hunting species;

establishes compatibility between economic and social fields and hunting tourism;

develops and promotes an attractive hunting offer for sustainable hunting tourism (ecotourism);

involves local communities in conservation the species;

protect the habitats of species of hunting interest;

provide food for migratory species during the migration period;

integrates sustainable hunting tourism into the local development strategy;

maintain the natural diversity of the environment;

protects nature and preserves unaltered the biodiversity of habitats;

combat poaching;

protects the species by further feeding during critical periods.

Sustainable hunting tourism, a component of cultural and environmental tourism, contributes, if it is well managed and are applied the best practices to:

- the sustainable development of poor and isolated communities;

economic and social development of rural area;

- preservation of the natural environment;

conservation of species of hunting interest;

raising the living standards of the inhabitants by developing the trade with craft products connected to hunting activity;

capitalizing the tourism resources;

preserving the fauna’s biodiversity.

Practicing sustainable hunting tourism has also other effects of cultural and social nature:

- establishment of relations between hunting tourists and the host populations from which they learn, traditional methods of hunting, behavior, respect for the species in the area;

- exchanges of ideas, circulation of images, cultural communication;

- recognition of traditional weapons and ways of using them for hunting;

- contributes to segmentation of clients for trophy hunting.

The main cultural effects can be considered as follows:

positive effects because (fig. 1):

negative effects:

endangering habitats, by disturbing species;

o removal from the herd of the valuable animals hunted for trophies;

By controlled measures, the negative impact of hunting tourism on sustainable development can be reduced by implementing the following managerial measures:

orientation of the hunting tourists flows;

organization of selection hunting, not for trophy;

intensification of selection and breeding actions;

educating tourists to preserve biodiversity;

educating tourists for practicing sustainable hunting tourism;

practicing cultural and ecological tourism using traditional weapons;

reducing stress at animals by shooting and dropping at firearms.


Fig. 1


4. Conclusions

Considered activity with recreational, sporting and entertaining character, hunting tourism, a modern form of tourism, a component of cultural tourism and ecotourism, propose from sociaand economic point of view assuming two subcategories of hunting, residential and non- residential.

In order to reduce the impact of hunting tourism on the environment and habitats of interest, it is necessary to develop measures, through which to reduce the number of hunters eager for hunting and encourage hunting ecotourists by improving the management of the hunting tourism offer of hunting tourism demand, of the capacity of hunting resources to deal with the demand for trophies.

Sustainable hunting tourism, of observation, of shooting of species in their natural habitat, a component of cultural and ecological tourism, contributes if it is well managed and are applied the best managerial practices to the sustainable development of poor and isolated communities, preservation of the natural environment, conservation of species of hunting interest and raising the living standards of the inhabitants through the development of trade with craft products related to hunting activity.

In this way the tourism resources are valued and the flora and fauna biodiversity are preserved.


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