The Path to Populism: Personalizing Political Parties05 ottobre 2017 -
Contributo selezionato da Filodiritto tra quelli pubblicati nei Proceedings “4th ACADEMOS Conference 2017”
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Contribution selected by Filodiritto among those published in the Proceedings “4th ACADEMOS Conference 2017”
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1 Political Science Faculty, National School on Political Studies and Public Administration, Bucharest (ROMANIA) Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
After the Brexit and Donald Trump’s election as President of USA the problem of the theory of political parties became once again on the agenda. The modern political system is rooted in the political fight of the ideological and organized parties. But the contemporary situation seems to be the end of this situation. The appearance of what we call Post-Democracy and Right Wing Populism drive the political parties into a totally new situation: the post-democratic parties (as PODEMOS, SYRIZA, etc.) are rooted direct into the society, became parties without apparatus and with fluid leaders. On contrast the populist movements are leader based parties, being totally influenced by the behavior and the declarations of the leader. But both of this parties are not very clearly ideological, being more catch all parties. At the left end of the spectrum place post-democracy; at the right, populism; in the centre lies majoritarian democracy. Liberal restraints on democratic majorities increase in number and importance as you move towards post-democracy; and decrease in number and importance as you move towards populism. But the more power has shifted to liberal institutions, and the weaker democratic majorities have become constitutionally, the more populism is likely to demand the removal of constitutional restraints on the will of the people. On the other hand, the more that majority rule remains the driving force of democracy, the more that populism will be absorbed within traditional democratic debate and made subject to its conventions. ‘In short’, as the Dutch political scientist, Cas Mudde, pointed out some years ago, ‘populism is an illiberal democratic response to undemocratic liberalism. It criticises the exclusion of important issues from the political agenda by the elites and calls for their repoliticisation’. The populist upsurges in Europe are such a response. Our article wants to discuss the issues at their heart. For this we want to tickle the classic political parties theory and to observe if this theory is still suitable for this new political era.
Political Parties Theory and Definitions and the Reality in Central Eastern Europe
Classical theories of political parties try to explain parties as some organizations whose functions are to organize and political prepare the society, having also the interest of governing on behalf of a social group, whose political representative they became. Through the idea of an organization, the political party should be a structural entity, in which its members are not personalized, acting only on behalf of the idea they support.
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